Tuesday, August 20, 2013

Raga Lalit: Tonal geometry and melodic mischief

Lalit is amongst the older and more popular ragas of the Hindustani system. It bears a close resemblance to raga Lalitha of the Carnatic system. The two ragas are considered manifestations of the same traditional melodic idea.

Lalit (also called Lalat) is a hexatonic raga prescribed for performance in the pre-sunrise hours. In the contemporary context, it has found a niche for itself in the three-hour period after sunrise. Some musicological texts approve of this timing. The melodic contours of the raga have also changed during this century. Its older form is still in occasional practice. Its popular contemporary form is, however, most relevant for present day listeners. (swara material:S r G M M^ d N).

The melodic personality of Lalit is dominated by the rare, probably unique, use of the two Ma swara-s (shuddha and tivra). Lalit features the use of the two Ma swara-s  sequentially in the ascent as well as the descent. This is an exception to the general rule for ragas using both pitches of any swara (natural and flat or natural and sharp). In such cases of twin-swara usage, the the general rule is that the raga is permitted to use only one of the two in the ascent, the other being used in the descent. Their sequential use in either direction is generally considered improper. The importance of this feature of Lalit is enhanced by the fact that the shuddha (natural) Ma is the vadi-swara, the pivotal around which the raga revolves.

In its predominant contemporary form, Lalit uses flat (komal) swara for Dh. Bhatkhande,, writing in the 1930's considered the natural (Shuddha) Dh swara as proper for Lalit, while acknowledging that the flat (Komal) Dh usage also had textual validation. He also recognized that, because of the dominance of twin-Ma usage in the melodic personality of the raga, the choice of either of the alternative Dh swara-s does not materially influence the distinctive Lalit effect.(Bhatkhande Sangeet Shastra Vol.III Ed.LN Garg, Sangeet Karyalaya, Hathras, Third Hindi edition, 1984.Pg.304-321),

Bhatkhande described Lalit as uttaranga-pradhan, a raga whose center of gravity is in the upper tetrachord. Bhatkhande might now be obsolete with respect to this description. Traditional and modern compositions, considered collectively, betray the compelling grip of the twin-Ma usage in the mid-octave region over the composer's mind. The raga may now be more appropriately classified as madhyanga-pradhan.

Lalit has two facets to its personality: the geometric, and the melodic. Bhatkhande provides the basic clue to both these facets. He recommends treating the scale, notionally, as a two-part, discontinuous scale, split between the two Ma swara-s, with Shuddha Ma on one side, and the tivra on the other. This gives you S-r-G-M and M^-d-N-S.

This division does not yield symmetrical or congruent units. To achieve this balance, the scale gets redefined,  for phraseological purposes, in first-fifth correspondence: N.-r-G-M and M^-d-N-S'. These divisions, considered separately but in correspondence, provide the acoustic basis for the geometry. Lalit releases its distinctive fragrance by treating these scale divisions as discontinuous, and in fusing them together. The welding takes place between the Shuddha and tivra Ma swara-s, with the support of either Ga below or Dh above. This joinery gives the raga its defining, and unique, melodic personality.

The raga has a third, but unintended, facet, which can surface due to the inept or mischievous handling of the dominance of the shuddha (natural) Ma in the raga. With excessive or inattentive improvisation around shuddha Ma, it is easy to create an aural illusion of Ma as the scale-base. The results can be quaint.

If Ma becomes, even momentarily, the notional scale base in the listener's mind, Lalit starts sounding like Todi. Interestingly, one significant gharana of vocal music explicitly teaches Lalit as Todi sung to scale-base at Ma, and does so without ridiculous results.

Lalit phrasing: G M d M^ M
Todi illusion:  N S g r  S

Lalit phrasing: N  d M^ d M^ M
Todi illusion:  M^ g r  g r  S

Lalit phrasing: r' N  d M^ d M^ M
Todi illusion : d  M^ g r  g r  S

Orthodox musicians calculatedly avoid such risks. Contemporary musicians occasionally take delight in the raga's potential for mischief, allowing the illusion to persist for a while before restoring the relationship of the phrasing to base-Sa.

The Ma/Sa confusion is relevant also to the tuning of instruments. Because Lalit does not use the Pa swara, vocalists tune their tanpuras to Ma-Sa-Sa-Sa. If Ma replaces the Sa as the scale-base in the listener's mind, the Sa on the tanpura begins to sound like Pa, which is forbidden in the raga. The danger of such slippage is generally negligible in sitar and the sarod music, where the second string and the chikaris, tuned to Sa do not allow the scale-base to relent for any significant duration.

The chalan (distinctive phraseology) provides the defining contours of the raga's melodic personality. The scale divisions permit the improvisational process to explore its potential for symmetric, geometric as well kaleidoscopic tonal patterns. And, the Ma/Sa double-entendre makes the raga pregnant with an element of wit. Lalit is thus rich in musical potential.

Bhatkhande has described Lalit as a raga of serious temperament. The standard Lalit of his times uses Shuddha Dh, and omits Ni in the ascent (M^-D-S'). The contemporary Lalit uses komal Dh, and permits the ascent to use Ni (M^-d-N-S') without prohibiting the traditional ascent (M^-d-S'). With this change, the raga has shed some of its robust quality, but sharpened its poignancy. 

The seriousness of the original Lalit has now tilted towards pathos. To appreciate this, we merely need to observe what the "Lalit effect" does when blended with raga Gauri in Lalita-Gauri and when dovetailed to Sohini in Lalita-Sohini. It makes them weep.

(c) India Archive Music, New York. 

Friday, August 16, 2013

Seasonal raga-s in Hindustani music

Musicologist, Prof. Ashok Ranade often observed that Hindustani music is deeply engaged with the three major cycles affecting human life – the cycle of birth and death, the cycle of day and night, and the cycle of the four seasons. While specific Raga-s are not associated with birth and death, the tradition does prescribe the appropriate time of the day/ night for the performance of most, if not all, Raga-s, and also features several seasonal Raga-s. 

The seasonal perspective on Raga-s is a distinctly North Indian perspective not shared currently by the Carnatic tradition, and for probably understandable reasons. Being closer to the equator, the Southern Peninsula does not experience as dramatic a change in the physical environment through the year as does the Northern heartland. 

As matter of academic interest, the Hindu calendar divides the year into six distinct seasons, and the tradition appears to have prescribed Raga-s for performance in each of these seasons. 

Manasollasa, a treatise written by Someshwara (1131 AD) provides insights into this dimension of musicological thought.

1. Spring (months: Chaitra and Vaisakha): Raga Vasanta/ its Ragini-s 
2. Summer (months: Jyeshtha and Ashadha): Raga Bhairava/ its Ragini-s
3. Monsoons (months: Shravana and Bhadrapada): Raga Megh/ its Ragini-s. 
4. Autumn (months: Ashwin and Kartika): Raga Panchama/ its Ragini-s
5. Early winter (months: Margashirsha and Paush): Raga Natanarayana/ its Ragini-s. 
6. Deep winter (months: Magha and Phalguna): Raga Shree/its Ragini-s

(From: Semiosis in Hindustani Music, Jose Luiz Martinez, First edition, 2001, Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi)

While the scholarly tradition supports a wide scope for seasonal Raga-s, the enthusiasm of the performing tradition has been limited largely to Vasanta (spring) and Varsha (rainy season/ the monsoons).  There seems to be a good reason for this bias. 

In the climatic experience of Northern India, spring and the monsoons have special significance.  Spring brings relief from the severity of Northern winters, while the monsoons bring relief from the oppressive heat of the Northern summer. Both seasons signify nature rejuvenating itself. Understandably, therefore, the popular seasonal Raga-s are associated primarily with these seasons. 

Saturday, August 3, 2013

Becoming familiar with the genres

When exposed to Hindustani music, the novice listener needs to figure out what is going on.  The answer to this query depends on the genre in which the music is being performed. Each genre has a different way of manifesting the Raga (the Commanding Form) as a communicable Form.  These different “ways” are represented in the pre-composed element of Raga rendition, along with the different improvisatory movements hosted by each genre. And, indeed, each musician also has a different approach to deploying the genre for delivering the Raga to his listeners in communicable form.

The principal genres on the contemporary scene are Khayal vocalism, Dhrupad (vocal and instrumental), and the modern genre of the plucked string instruments, heard mainly on the Sitar, Sarod, the Hawaiian guitar and the Santoor. 

The first step, then: Assemble ten recordings of Khayal vocalism, each of a different Raga, performed by different musicians. Listen to each recording several times over. Your musical mind will identify for you what is common to all the recordings, isolated from the influence of the different Raga-s and different musicians performing them. That, which is common to all these recordings, is the architecture of the Khayal genre.

The second step.  Assemble ten recordings of Dhrupad – vocal and Rudra Veena -- each featuring a different Raga, and performed preferably by different musicians. Listen to each recording several times over. Your musical mind will identify for you what is common to all the recordings, isolated from the influence of the different Raga-s and different musicians performing them. That, which is common to all these recordings, is the architecture of the Dhrupad genre.

The third step: Assemble ten recordings of instrumental music on the major string instruments – Sitar, Sarod, Hawaiian guitar, and Santoor. They should all be of different Ragas, preferably performed by different musicians.  Listen to each recording several times over. Your musical mind will identify for you what is common to all the recordings, isolated from the influence of the different Raga-s and different musicians performing them. That, which is common to all these recordings, is the architecture of the modern instrumental genre of the plucked string instruments.

Once you start anticipating the movements typical of each genre while listening to a concert -- any concert -- you have made decent progress towards becoming a connoisseur. This does not mean there will be no surprises. But, being able to identify them will itself be a source of delight. 

Understanding the Raga

An aspirant to the appreciation of Hindustani music will generally start with two questions in his mind: What is a Raga? And, how do I differentiate one Raga from another?

What is a Raga? A renowned music critic once observed that writing about music was as useful as dancing about architecture. So, critics and musicologists have their limitations as cultivators of public taste.  There are as many definitions of the Raga as there are authors on the subject. None of them is a substitute for direct encounters with Raga-ness.

How do I differentiate one Raga from another? Once a listener gets a reasonable grip on what a Raga is, the differentiation of one Raga from another becomes possible through exposures to multiple Ragas.

The first step, then:  Take any one Raga.  Start with a simple Raga, like Malkauns. Go out and get ten recordings of the Raga by ten different musicians performing the same Raga, preferably in different genres. A few in Khayal vocalism. A few in instrumental music.  A few in Dhrupad or Dhamar. Listen to each recording several times. Your musical mind will begin to identify what is common to all the recordings. And that, which is common to all of them, is the Raga-ness of Malkauns.

Second step:  Now, take another Raga, an allied Raga like Chandrakauns.  In this Raga, you could find Khayal, instrumental, Dhrupad, and even Ghazal recordings. Repeat the same procedure as followed for Malkauns. Your musical mind will now identify the Raga-ness of Chandrakauns. In addition, it will tell you how the Raga-ness of Malkauns differs from that of Chandrakauns.  These differentiators are what constitutes the Raga-ness of Ragas. 

If such a procedure is repeated across several Raga-s – whether purposively or otherwise -- your musical mind will also identify the dimensions of Raga-ness: the various attributes by which Raga-s are distinguished from one another.  And, from this point on, you have taken an important step towards becoming a connoisseur. 

Appreciating Hindustani music

The joys of any art grow with the awareness of its governing principles. This is true also of Hindustani music.

A Hindustani musician  shapes his rendition under the discipline of two governing forms. The first is the Raga which constitutes its “Commanding Form”. But, though the Raga is a definitive and recognizable form, it is a “formless Form” in the sense of not being a composition. It  manifests itself in  communicable form through the appropriately sequenced movements (the architecture) of the second regulatory form – the genre in which it is performed. 

A connoisseur of Hindustani music has intimate knowledge of both these forms – the Commanding Form and the Manifest Form. Through an understanding of these two, he is able to gain insights into the individualistic manner in which the Commanding Form has been visualized by the musician for communication. It is these insights that are the source of his delight in the exposure to Hindustani music, and differentiate him from the average music lover.

The aspirant to the status of a connoisseur needs therefore to cultivate his understanding of two facets of the tradition -- Raga-ness as the principle of aesthetically coherent and emotionally suggestive creation, and of the various genres, as the principle for the organisation of musical material. Neither of these facets is satisfactorily understood by reading books on music.  They may be partially understood by undergoing a decade or two of training in music under a competent Guru.  For those who do not have this benefit, but have the sharp ears and cultivated mind as the basic equipment, appreciation can be cultivated by an intensive and extensive exposure to performances and recordings. 

Friday, August 2, 2013

Is Hindustani music your kettle of fish?

Hindustani music is obviously not music for everyone. Music industry sources have reported that, for several decades, the share of this segment of the market has remained stable at between 1.5% and 2%. They also observe that the audience for Hindustani music primarily middle-aged and senior (45+). This is understandable because the appreciation of this music requires two basic qualifications at a respectable level of sophistication – pitch differentiation and pattern recognition. Age need not be a barrier except in the sense that it could define music lovers who have outgrown frivolous music, which elicits only an animated physical response.

In simple language, this music demands sharp ears, and a cultivated mind. If these minimum conditions are satisfied, the aspiring aesthete still has to commit time, intellect and emotional energy over a period of time to the refinement of receptivity. 

And, what are its rewards? 

Like any art, Hindustani music is a pathway to a richer emotional life. The aesthetic exposure to a wide range of emotional experiences (Sagunatmaka)  brings within reach the experience of pure delight that transcends everyday notions of pleasure (Nirgunatmaka). According to the Indian tradition, it even takes you towards bliss, which belongs to the territory of mystical experience. If these rewards have any appeal for you, you can train yourself to receive them. 

Hindustani Music and Aesthetics Today

Sushil Kumar Saxena
First Edition 2009
Sangeet Nataka Akademi
in association with
Hope India Publications
Pages: 471. Hard cover: Rs. 995/-

This book has no precedent.  It is a pioneering attempt to look at Hindustani music in the way of contemporary aesthetics. The ways we talk about experience, or evaluate music. as also its  composition and overt performance, have been given due attention in this work.

In other words. reflection on music here proceeds along the three major ways in which aesthetics is being pursued (in the West) today - that is. not only the linguistic-analytic and phenomenological approaches, but the one that looks at art as a kind of world-making.

Correspondingly. the contents of this book can be put under three different heads: (a) an attempt to determine  the full aesthetic significance. as against the  traditionally specified (verbal) meanings of the key words that are used in respect of the elements and different genres of our music; (b) discussion of concepts like aesthetic attitude. experience. and point of view as they relate to Hindustani music; and (c) analysis of the devices through which the structure and actual singing of a Dhruvapad, Dhamar, Khayal, or Tarana is (or can be) invested with some extra appea l- all duly buttressed with notational analysis of some actual compositions.

The author is incisive in his discussion of problems such as: (a) Is musical time different from, or identical with, time as we experience it in daily life; (b) How can we distinguish the form from the content of a work in the region of an occurent art like music or rhythm, (c) Can rhythm be regarded as an autonomous art and (d) How can our music be said to be spiritual?

This book may be expected to encourage readers to think about Hindustani music along lines that have not been systematically explored so far. 

Sushil Kumar Saxena (1920-2013), formerly Professor of Philosophy  at Delhi University, was amongst the most respected and original thinkers on the aesthetics of Hindustani music, rhythm and Kathak dance, with several pioneering works to his credit. He was a Fellow of the Sangeet Natak Akademi and of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research. He was also decorated with the Padma Bhushan by the President of India. 

Thursday, August 1, 2013

Raga performance in the Dhrupad genre

Dhrupad performances on the contemporary concert platform are either of vocal rendition or of Rudra Veena recitals. The Rudra Veena – a member of the tube zither family of instruments -- has been the traditional accompanist to vocal music in the Dhrupad tradition. As a result, the content and idiom of the two manifestations of the genre have come to be identical. 

Presentation format  
Phase I is a totally improvised form called Alap, rendered without percussion accompaniment.
Phase II consists of percussion accompanied presentation of one or more compositions, along with melodic and rhythmic improvisations. 

The 3-tier  Alap protocol 
Tier 1: This is called the Vilambit (low density) Alap. A free-flowing , low melodic density exploration of the Raga’s melodic personality through two octaves, rendered without any perceptible pulsation or rhythm. 

Tier 2: This is called the Madhya Laya (medium tempo) Alap. Its melodic span and structure are similar to the Tier 1 Vilambit Alap; but the melody will now acquire a 2-beat pulsation.  This tier of the Alap is generally performed at about 60 beats per minute, without any escalation during the course of the rendition. 

Tier 3: This is called the Drut (brisk tempo) Alap. Its melodic structure can be similar to the Tier 2 Alap; but the melody is rendered to a distinct 4-beat rhythm. This tier of the Alap may be launched at above 180 beats per minute, and escalate before closure. 

Compositions in the Dhrupad genre
Compositions encountered in contemporary Dhrupad are primarily of three types, corresponding to different Tala-s of the genre. 

(a) Compositions set to Chautala of 12 beats, generally performed at a slow to medium tempo. These compositions are the mainstay of the genre. 
(b) Compositions set to the Dhamara Tala of 14 beats, generally performed in medium tempo. The poetic content of these compositions as typically related to Holi, the festival of spring. 
(c) Compositions set to the Sula Tala of 10 beats, generally performed at a brisk tempo. These are the liveliest contemporary manifestations of the medieval genre. 

Format options
(a) A 3-tier Alap, followed by a Chautala composition.
(b) A 3-tier Alap, followed by a Chautala composition, and then by a Dhamara composition in the same Raga. 
(c) A 3-tier, or even a single-tier (Tier 1) Alap, followed by a Dhamara composition. 
(d) A 3-tier or a single-tier (Tier 1)Alap, followed by a Dhamar composition, and then by a Sula Tala composition in the same Raga. 
(e) A 3-tier Alap, followed by a Chautala composition, and then a Sula Tala composition in the same Raga. 

Dhrupad ensemble
A mention must be made of the ensemble for Dhrupad performance. As a rule, Dhrupad musicians only use the Tanpura as an accompaniment for vocal or instrumental music. They have kept away from the Sarangi and the Harmonium for melodic accompaniment, both of which have acceptance in the modern Khayal and Thumree genres.  In rare cases, a Dhrupad vocalist may have a Rudra Veena player accompanying him, as this is the traditionally established practice in the genre. For percussion accompaniment, Dhrupad uses the Pakhawaj (a two-faced horizontal drum), instead of the modern Tabla. This austerity and  conservatism in the presentation of music has enabled Dhrupad to retain its distinct identity in a Khayal dominated environment. 

Raga performance in Khayal vocalism

The overall architecture of Khayal vocalism is similar to that of instrumental music.  It conforms to the modern architecture of Hindustani music, featuring a steady escalation of melodic and rhythmic density and complexity, intertwined with a cyclical treatment of melody in each phase.  

In comparison with Sitar/Sarod music, however, Khayal rendition tends to have a more compressed structure. Phase I of a Khayal presentation is very short, while Phase II and III are almost equally elaborate.

Phase I 
Phase I of Khayal rendition is an entirely improvised prelude, performed without percussion accompaniment. It can last between 2 and 5 minutes.  The purpose of this prelude is to identify the Raga being performed, and to introduce its melodic contours to the audience. 

Phase II 
Phase II is called Bada Khayal (the major Khayal). It consists of a slow-tempo composition, performed to percussion accompaniment at 25-40 beats per minute, with mild acceleration permissible, though not always found, during the course of the rendition. Along with logically sequenced improvisations inserted into the composition, the slow-tempo composition can consume 80-85% of the duration of the rendition. 

Phase III 
Phase III of Khayal presentation is called the Chhota Khayal (the minor Khayal. It features a brisk-tempo composition launched at 120+ beats per minute, once again with permissible acceleration as the rendition approaches its closure. Phase III can take up 15-20% of the duration of the performance. 

The Tarana is a lively compositional form – generally performed in medium to brisk tempo -- which features an articulation of meaningless consonants in lieu of the poetry characteristic of Khayal compositions.  A musician may choose to perform a Tarana either in addition to a Chhota Khayal (Phase III) or, in lieu of it. 

Raga performance on the Sitar and Sarod

The Sitar and the Sarod evolved concurrently and interactively in the 18th and 19th centuries as major solo instruments in Hindustani music. Both being plucked lutes, they also cultivated a shared format for Raga presentation.  Their protocol was later also found suitable for the percussive-melodic instrument, the Santoor, and adopted by its performers. 

Phase I
The first Phase of a Sitar/Sarod/Santoor performance is an entirely improvised solo, without percussion accompaniment. It has three movements: This phase can consume 40-50% of the duration of the presentation. 

1. The first movement is called the Alap, which is an entirely improvised free flowing melodic movement. It consists of low-density melody, without explicit pulsation or rhythm.  Along with this, the movement also features a systematic perforation of the melody by the harmonic ambiance of the tuned instrument. 

2.  The second movement is called Jod. In this the melody is medium density, and acquires a simple 2-beat pulsation.  In this movement, the structured use of the harmonic ambiance of the instrument is deployed more actively than in the Jod movement. 

3. The third movement is called the Jhala. This movement consists of high-density melody with a structure approximating a 4/6/8 beat rhythmic cycle. The melody is perceptibly more complex, with even elements of harmony entering the music.  The Jhala raises the first phase presentation to a crescendo before it ends. 

This Alap-Jod-Jhala phase of solo music is carried over from the protocol of the Rudra Veena (also a plucked string instrument), which was the primary instrument of the Dhrupad era. 

Phase II
In the second phase of the performance, the musician presents a slow-tempo composition to percussion accompaniment. Logically sequenced improvisations are inserted into the frame of the composition. Slow tempo compositions are generally performed at a tempo of 45-60 beats per minute. This phase can consume 30-40% of the duration of the presentation.

Phase III
In the third phase of the performance, the musician presents a fast-tempo composition, also to percussion accompaniment, and with logically sequenced improvisations inserted into the frame of the composition.  These compositions are generally performed at a tempo of 150+ beats per minute, and undergo a steady escalation culminating in a crescendo at over 300 beats per minute. This third and final phase of the presentation can take up 10-20% of the duration. 

Phase II and Phase III of the Sitar/Sarod protocol mainly represent post-Dhrupad musical idioms. They could belong either distinctively to the the plucked lutes, or exhibit the influence of the modern Khayal vocalism. 

Raga presentation in Hindustani music

In contemporary (post-Dhrupad) Hindustani music, the musician works with the composition and the improvisatory movements as distinct musical elements. His task is to integrate them seamlessly into a composite and well-organized musical experience. It is therefore not possible to see the two elements as claiming different shares of the duration of a Raga presentation. 

Because the composition is already pre-composed, it requires minimal composing effort from the musician. The improvisations, on the other hand, require a fairly intense effort at interpreting the Raga in the format of a movement. One can therefore see the two elements as taking up different shares of musical energy. 

Viewed in this manner, the pre-composed element in modern Hindustani music may take up less than 15% of the musical energy, with the improvised element consuming the remaining 85%. In the medieval Dhrupad genre, however, the pre-composed element can consume over 60% of the musical energy. Evidently, the enlarged scope for individual creativity has been an important feature of the transition from Dhrupad to post-Dhrupad music. 

Tala: the cycle of musical time

The rhythmic element in a Hindustani music composition is called a Tala. Its main function is to interpret geophysical time as musical time. Like geophysical time, a Tala is also cyclical. But, as musical time, subordinated to the human aesthetic sensibility, it can be given any duration and tempo, and can also be sub-divided in a variety of ways. It can thus be imparted different cycle durations and cadential patterns. 

The art and craft of the composer arranges a convergence of these cycle durations and cadential patterns with the meter of the melodic lines, and the poetic verse (where present). This convergence of the three elements imparts to each composition its distinctive form. 

Twentieth century literature lists about 50 tala-s. However, across all genres, contemporary Hindustani music is dominated by ten to twelve Tala-s. The smallest Tala in circulation has 6 beats, while the longest has 18 beats.  The subdivisions of the Tala-s can be regular or irregular. Some Tala-s are particularly suited for slow-tempo compositions, while others are specially suited for medium or brisk tempo compositions.  A few, very few, Tala-s are versatile enough to be performed at any tempo without losing their distinctive cadential structure. 

Wednesday, July 31, 2013

The composition in Hindustani music

A musical composition, by its general definition, is a pre-composed musical form which integrates melodic, rhythmic and poetic elements. This definition would fit a song in any category of music, including folk, devotional, and popular. It will not, however, satisfy a composition in Hindustani music. The Hindustani tradition does not, as a  rule, deploy a composition as a stand-alone piece of performed music. Instead, the composition is required to function as the nucleus of the performance, and hold the entire performance together as a seamless piece of well organized music. 

The composition can perform this function only if it conforms to the grammar of a particular Raga, and facilitates the insertion and integration of the various improvised movements appropriate to the genre. In the context of vocal music, ideally, the literary element should also support the emotional values (Rasa) of the Raga with appropriate poetic expression.

Though rarely performed in isolation, and normally used as a melodic-rhythmic-poetic frame for the improvisatory movements, a composition of merit commands respect as an exemplary specimen of the composer’s art and craft. 

Each genre of music provides the musician with a bank of such compositions, which are composed in different Raga-s and set to rhythmic cycles appropriate to the genre, along with their prescribed tempo. Having chosen his Raga, a musician can perform either a composition from this bank, or decide to compose his own.  Most musicians accept their own limitations as composers, and find it convenient to draw upon familiar and time-tested musical material in the public domain. 

Architectural conventions in modern Hindustani music

Architectural conventions govern the sequencing of the improvisatory movements and their integration with the composition to shape the totality of the Raga presentation. The sequencing logic is based on widely accepted assumptions about human comprehension. Anyone who has been a teacher will easily recognize these principles as being equally applicable to education. 

Sequentially, the rendition begins with the slowest movements, and moves steadily towards the faster movements.  It starts from the melodically and rhythmically simpler movements, and moves towards to the more complex movements. It commences with the relatively unstructured movements in which the details are transparent, and progresses towards the more structured movements, where the detail can often get blurred.  The sequencing of movements is exponential in terms of density and complexity.

Complexity is a self-evident term. But, what do we mean by density? In melody, it is measured by the number of explicit intonations per second. In rhythm, it will mean number of beats per second. The density of the overall musical experience can be visualized in terms of sound-bytes delivered per second.

Within each movement, the melody undergoes a cyclical treatment. Why should there be any prescribed pattern?  To begin with, art music has to be disciplined. In the process of providing ample scope for individual creativity, it cannot permit any facet of it to be random or whimsical. The melodic framework of a Raga is the primary emotional trigger, and has to be given complete scope for performing this function. The minimum condition for this is that the exploration of the Raga must go through ascending, descending and valedictory motions through two octaves in the major – if not all – movements in order to release its emotional charge inherent in the melodic framework.

Schematic representation of architectural conventions

This combination of exponential sequencing of movements and cyclical melodic formations within each movement will be easier to appreciate with a schematic representation.

It will be observed in the graph that there 
 is an exponential trend-line representing the density and complexity. Running through it is a cyclical wave pattern representing the melodic path. 

This model is verifiable by a systematic plotting of melodic and rhythmic trends in a modern Hindustani music performance. Raga-based music in the medieval Dhrupad-Dhamar genre would need to be represented by a different architectural model. 

The principal genres of Hindustani music

An art music tradition supports various genres of music. Each genre has its own history, geography and specificity. But, for the purposes of comprehension, a genre is defined primarily by its architectural features. There are two aspects to understanding the architecture of a musical genre: First is that of understanding its subordinate forms and their movements, and the second, the sequencing of the movements within the subordinate forms.

Hindustani art-music, as performed, can be compared to the telling of a story through the interpretation of a Raga. Movements in a genre of Raga-based music may be compared to the chapters in a book, or acts and scenes in a play. In music, each movement progresses the “story” by the distinctive way in which it crafts the interaction between melody, rhythm and poetry (in the case of vocal music). The sequencing of the movements determines the build-up and release of aesthetic tension in a piece of art music, just as chapters in a novel, or acts in a play, are sequenced to achieve the aesthetic impact of the story-telling.  

In literature, we know that a novel, a short story, a cinema script, and a play, will tend to build and release the tension of the story line in different ways. And this, of course, is why each of them has its own place in the world of literature. Likewise, there are different genres in art music because they deliver different qualities of aesthetic experience. 

On the contemporary art music platform, a listener is likely to encounter the following genres. 

1. Dhrupad (along with its companion sub-genre, Dhamar): This was the dominant genre of vocal and instrumental art music between the 15th and 18th centuries. 

2. Khayal:  This genre began evolving in the 13th century as a fusion of older Indian musical genres and Middle Eastern influence, and began to replace Dhrupad as the dominant genre of vocal music from the 18th century. The Khayal remains, to this day, the dominant vocal genre, with a significant presence also in the music of the bowed and wood-wind instruments. 

3. Thumree: This genre originated as an accompaniment to Kathak (North Indian) dance. The Thumree evolved as a  genre of solo vocal music from the 18th century and retained a significant presence till the middle of the 20th century. As a genre of vocal music, it could not survive the transition from the intimacy of its original milieu to the impersonal  atmosphere of the modern concert hall.  Its manifestation in instrumental music has, however, remained stable. 

4. The modern genre of plucked instruments: This genre is heard primarily on the plucked lutes – Sitar, Sarod, Hawaiian guitar. Their idiom has also been adopted by the percussive-melodic Santoor, the most recent entrant into art-music from folk traditions. Because of the dominance of the plucked string instruments in contemporary music, their idiom is also influencing the wood-wind and bowed instruments. This genre combines elements of the medieval Dhrupad genre, with post-Dhrupad modes of presentation. 

Note:  Of the above four, the Thumree is a borderline case of a Raga-based genre. Its melody is rooted predominantly in the Raga pantheon. But, the musician is allowed considerable liberty in observing the rules of Raga grammar. In addition, the melodic resource of the genre includes folk melodies, which cannot qualify as Raga-s.  

Tuesday, July 30, 2013

Hindustani Sangeet and a Philosopher of Art

Music, Rhythm and Kathak dance visa-a-vis  aesthetics of Susanne K. Langer

Author: Sushil Kumar Saxena 
Pages: 363. Hard-cover price: Rs. 600.00
Publisher: DK Printworld Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi. 2001

 This book is decidedly the first of its kind. It seeks to weigh some basic facts and concepts of Hindustani Sangeet (music, rhythm and dance) against the art theories of the influential modern aesthetician, Susanne K. Langer, and with consistently meticulous attention to the text of her writings.

The expression theory of art has for long dominated the history of aesthetics. At the hands of Langer,however, the theory takes a new turn. She conceives of art not as a direct self-expression of the artist’s immediate affective state, but as a symbolic expression of his knowledge of what she terms variously as felt life, sentience, or forms of feeling. 

Drawing freely upon examples from the region of Hindustani Sangeet, the author accepts Langer’s protest against the popular view of artistic expression. But, he also contends that there is a good deal in our music and dance which has nothing to do with feeling, and is admired simply because of its sweetness, clarity, shapeliness, and accordance with grammatical norms.

Perhaps the most two most striking features of this book are: first, a lucid exposition of the essentials of Langer’s aesthetics, and second, abounding illustrative references to the manifestation and assumptions of Hindustani Sangeet.

Sushil Kumar Saxena (1920-2013), formerly Professor of Philosophy  at Delhi University, was amongst the most respected and original thinkers on the aesthetics of Hindustani music, rhythm and Kathak dance, with several pioneering works to his credit. He was a Fellow of the Sangeet Natak Akademi and of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research.

Monday, July 29, 2013

Raga: The "Commanding Form" in Hindustani music

All art submits to its audience a form for aesthetic appreciation.  Literature submits a verbal form. Painting and sculpture submit a visual form. Architecture submits visual and spatial/enveloping forms which warrant aesthetic evaluation apart from the structure’s functional values. Music submits an auditory form.  Like other forms, the musical form is governed by a “commanding form” which governs the entirety of the musical endeavor and its experience. With specific reference to Western art music, the influential aesthetician, Susanne K Langer, granted the status of the "Commanding Form" appropriately to the composition. In Hindustani music, we find that the composition is itself subservient to the Raga.  In our music, therefore, the status of the “commanding form” most be  accorded to the Raga.

A Raga is a partially precomposed matrix of melodic contours, tight enough to remain recognizable and loose enough to provide substantial creative freedom. Each Raga justifies itself as performance material because it makes a distinctive emotional statement. It can be described as a psycho acoustic hypothesis which relates qualifying melodic patterns to the associated quality of emotional responses. At each rendition, a musician works on this hypothesis and deploys his creativity in an attempt to maximize the probability of communicating the associated emotional idea.

Raga-s are not “composed” by any particular musician. Their origins are mostly indeterminate. They evolve over a period of time from a variety of source melodies as plausible triggers for well-defined categories of emotional responses. It is estimated that the melodic grammar of about a 1500 Ragas has been documented.  The music-scape of each generation sees some Raga-s coming into circulation, and some going out of fashion. The core of commonly performed ragas remains around 200. 

Note: For a comprehensive view on this subject, read:  "Hindustani Sangeet and a Philosopher of Art" by SK Saxena, DK Printworld, New Delhi 2001.

It is "Art" Music; not "classical"...

The description of Hindustani music as “Classical music” is one of the unfortunate things to happen to this tradition. The objections to this description are several. Three, however, deserve special mention. Firstly, the description is an import from Western music, where “Classical” refers to scholarly music composed during the “Classical” period. Any period-specific connotation is inapplicable to Hindustani music. Secondly, in common usage, the word “classical” has to come to suggest an elitist barrier (“class” as the opposite of “mass”), which again is misleading in the sense in which most people understand it.  And, finally, the adjective is scientifically imprecise, because it does not allow its features to be distinguished from other categories of music prevalent in the same culture.

Scholars therefore recommend the term “Art” music in preference to “Classical” music. This nomenclature is faithful to its features, and also allows us to distinguish it from other major musical categories – primitive music, folk music, popular music, devotional music, and martial music. These various categories co-exist in the musical culture, and are distinct in their features. Of course, they also interact with each other in often imperceptible ways and may also overlap.

Hindustani music should therefore be considered a spontaneous, living, and constantly evolving expression of society’s musical needs and aspirations. It is an organic part of the musical culture, and not something outside it. It is accessible to almost anyone within the culture, though indeed with some effort. In short, it is not music from a different planet.

Features of art music

As a distinct category of music, Art Music has its defining features. It is devoted towards the achievement of aesthetic objectives, to the exclusion of all others. It relies entirely on auditory stimuli to achieve its aesthetic purpose. The existence of other stimuli (e.g. visual appeal or bodily movement) is incidental, and considered disruptive, if it draws particular attention to itself. Art music is abstract in the sense that it does not explicitly represent anything in particular outside of itself. And, finally, to qualify as Art, it also has to define the artist – and to this extent, it is also individualistic. This feature is even more important in Hindustani music because, it combines in the same person the simultaneous roles of composer and performer.  

An Art Music tradition generally incorporates several genres within itself, each with its well-defined disciplines and degrees of artistic freedom. Because of the simultaneous operation of discipline and artistic freedom, the appreciation and enjoyment of Art Music grows directly in proportion to the awareness of the rules that guide performance. This very phenomenon of discipline alongside artistic freedom allows music to change and evolve in response to changing audience profiles and tastes. As a parallel reflection of this dialectic, an art music tradition supports a scholarly tradition which monitors the performing tradition and conceptualizes trends in practice. 

For a detailed discussion on this subject, read "Hindustani Music Today" by Deepak Raja, DK Printworld, New Delhi 2012. 

Wednesday, January 9, 2013

Hindustani Music Today: Book Review by Kuldeep Kumar in "SANGNA"

हिंदुस्तानी म्यूज़िक टुडे, दीपक एस. राजा, डीके प्रिंटवर्ल्ड, पृ. 138, मू. 320 रु.

समकालीन हिंदुस्तानी संगीत का परिदृश्य
कुलदीप कुमार

दीपक एस. राजा का व्यक्तित्व बहुआयामी है। उन्होंने दिल्ली विश्वविद्यालय से बी.ए. (ऑनर्स) करने के बाद इंडियन इंस्टीट्यूट ऑफ बिजिनेस मेनेजमेंट, अहमदाबाद से एम.बी.ए. किया, बिजिनेस इंडिया पत्रिका के संपादक और इंडियन न्यूज़पेपर सोसाइटी के महासचिव रहे, इमदादखानी घराने के पंडित पुलिन देब बर्मन एवं पंडित अरविंद पारिख जैसे संगीतकारों से सितार और सुरबहार बजाना सीखा, और जयपुर घराने की गायिका धोंडुताई कुलकर्णी से खयाल की शिक्षा ली। साथ-साथ उन्होंने संगीत पर लेख और पुस्तकें लिखना भी शुरू किया और आज उनकी गिनती देश के महत्वपूर्ण संगीतशास्त्रियों में की जाती है।
इस वर्ष जनवरी में डीके प्रिंटवर्ल्ड ने उनकी ताज़ातरीन किताब हिंदुस्तानी म्यूज़िक टुडेप्रकाशित की है। बहुत समय से संगीत के जानकार यह मुद्दा उठाते रहे हैं कि क्या राग-संगीत को शास्त्रीय, अर्ध- या उप-शास्त्रीय और सुगम संगीत जैसी संज्ञाओं से अभिहित किया जाना चाहिए? पुस्तक के पहले अध्याय में दीपक राजा ने इसी प्रश्न पर विचार किया है और शास्त्रीय संगीत की तुलना में कला संगीत नाम को बेहतर माना है। उनका यह कहना सही है कि राग-संगीत को पाश्चात्य संगीतशास्त्रीय चिंतन के प्रभाव के कारण ही क्लासिकल या शास्त्रीय संगीत कहा जाने लगा जबकि स्वयं पश्चिम में इस संज्ञा पर विवाद है। शुरू में इसे बारोक युग के अंत और रोमांटिक युग के आरंभ के बीच रचा गया संगीत माना जाता था और बेठोफेन, मोत्ज़ार्ट तथा हेडेन जैसे संगीतकारों की रचनाओं के लिए इस नाम का इस्तेमाल होता था लेकिन अब इसकी परिधि में पिछले 400-500 वर्षों के संगीत को समेट लिया गया है। दीपक राजा कलात्मक विविधता और वैयक्तिक रचनाशीलता वाले इस संगीत को कला संगीत मानते हैं। यहाँ यह उल्लेख अनुचित न होगा कि हमारी संगीत परंपरा में इस प्रकार के संगीत को मार्गी और इससे इतर लोकप्रचलित संगीत को देशी कहा जाता था। मार्गी संगीत से यह संकेत भी मिलता है कि इस संगीत के सृजन में संगीतकार एक विशेष पद्धति या मार्ग का अनुसरण करता है और उसे अपनी सृजनात्मकता की अभिव्यक्ति के लिए पूरी स्वतन्त्रता तो उपलब्ध है, पर अराजकता नहीं। यदि दीपक राजा इस पारंपरिक नामकरण और इसकी उपयुक्तता या अनुपयुक्तता पर भी विचार करते तो शायद इस बिन्दु पर कुछ और प्रकाश पड़ सकता था।
इस पुस्तक के केंद्र में ऐसे श्रोता हैं जो हमारे शास्त्रीय या कला या मार्गी संगीत में गंभीर दिलचस्पी तो रखते हैं पर उसके आस्वादन के लिए आवश्यक उपकरण और जानकारी से लैस नहीं हैं। लेखक ऐसे श्रोताओं से ही मुखातिब है और इससे इस पुस्तक की उपादेयता एवं प्रासंगिकता बहुत बढ़ गई है। पुस्तक के दूसरे अध्याय में रागानुभव को हम तक पहुंचाने वाले उपादानों के बारे में जानकारी दी गई है और इस प्रक्रिया में संगीत के ध्रुपद, खयाल और ठुमरी जैसे रूपों और राग, बंदिश तथा ताल के स्वरूप और उनके महत्व को स्पष्ट किया गया है और समझाया गया है कि किस प्रकार से कोई भी गायक या वादक केवल राग के चौखटे में ही नहीं, बंदिश और ताल की सीमाओं में भी बंधा रहकर ही अपने गायन या वादन की प्रस्तुति कर सकता है। इस संदर्भ में लेखक ने एक महत्वपूर्ण बात कही है कि राग की तरह ही ताल का भी अपना विशेष मूड होता है और उसके मूड को ध्यान में रखकर ही कलाकार को उसे बरतना होता है।
जैसाकि शीर्षक से ही स्पष्ट हैं, मध्यरात्रि में भैरव इस पुस्तक का बेहद विचारोत्तेजक और विवादास्पद अध्याय है। यह खुशी की बात है कि दीपक राजा ने इस विषय पर लेखनी उठाई है क्योंकि उनके विचारों से भले ही असहमति हो, लेकिन इस विषय के महत्त्व से इंकार नहीं किया जा सकता। अब समय आ गया है जब संगीतकारों और संगीतशास्त्रियों को एक साथ बैठकर इस पर चर्चा करनी चाहिए और एक प्रकार की आम सहमति बनाने की कोशिश करनी चाहिए कि क्या राग-समय सिद्धान्त का पालन करना अनिवार्य है या नई परिस्थितियों में उसे खारिज करना ही उचित होगा। अक्सर संगीत के कार्यक्रमों में गायक या वादक अमुक राग को अमुक समय ही गाने-बजाने के नियम में ढील बरतने लगे हैं और धीरे-धीरे अराजकता की सी स्थिति बनती जा रही है। ऐसे में इस मुद्दे के सभी पहलुओं पर विचार करके एक सर्वानुमति तैयार करने की बेहद ज़रूरत है। दीपक राजा का विचार है कि दक्षिण भारतीय या कर्नाटक शैली की तरह ही उत्तर भारतीय या हिंदुस्तानी शैली में भी रागों को उनके निर्धारित समय पर प्रस्तुत करने की अनिवार्यता समाप्त होनी चाहिए। उन्होंने दिन के समय, सूर्य के प्रकाश, मौसम, राग के रसभाव आदि अनेक कारकों के साथ रागों का वैज्ञानिक दृष्टि से संबंध निर्धारित करने की कोशिश की है और यह निष्कर्ष निकाला है कि बदली परिस्थितियों में, जब अधिकांश संगीत प्रस्तुतियाँ शाम और रात के समय होती हैं और सुबह के राग सुनने में ही नहीं आते, मध्यरात्रि के समय भैरव गाने-बजाने पर नाक-भौं न सिकोड़ी जाये। उनका यह निष्कर्ष भी है कि रागविशेष को एक विशिष्ट कालावधि में ही गाने-बजाने की बाध्यता का कोई वैज्ञानिक आधार नहीं है।
वैज्ञानिक आधार हो या न हो, यह तो स्पष्ट है कि सुबह आँख खुलने के क्षण जो हमारी मनःस्थिति होती है, वह रात में उस समय नहीं जब आँखें झपने वाली होती हैं। सुबह दस बजे और रात के दस बजे हमारा शरीर और मन एक जैसा महसूस नहीं करते। फिर, परंपरा ने रागों के साथ अनेक अनुषंग जोड़ दिये हैं और हमारे मन-मस्तिष्क में यह बात गहराई के साथ बैठ गई है कि सुबह दस बजे दरबारी सुनने पर उसका वह असर नहीं होता तो उसे मध्यरात्रि के आसपास सुनने पर होता है। इसके पीछे संभवतः हमारे मन का अनुकूलन या कन्डीशनिंग ही है। उसके पीछे वैज्ञानिक कारण हो भी सकता है और नहीं भी हो सकता। उसी तरह जैसे बसंत के साथ पीला रंग जुड़ गया है और बसंत पंचमी के दिन पीले कपड़े पहनकर अच्छा लगता है। यूं पीले कपड़े पहनने की बाध्यता नहीं है। दीपक राजा ने इस मुद्दे पर विचार करके भविष्य में इस पर और विचार-विमर्श किए जाने का मार्ग प्रशस्त किया है। इस दृष्टि से यह स्वागतयोग्य और पठनीय है। यहाँ यह बता दें कि स्वयं उनके इमदादखानी घराने के श्रेष्ठतम रत्न उस्ताद विलायत खां रागों को उनके निर्धारित समय पर ही गाने-बजाने के हामी थे।
पुस्तक में घरानों और उनके भविष्य पर भी एक अध्याय है जिसमें घरानों में शैलियों के बनने और पुष्ट होने की प्रक्रिया का बहुत सुंदर विवेचन किया गया है। लेखक का निष्कर्ष है कि अब घरानों के बीच बहुत अधिक आदान-प्रदान हो रहा है और शैलियाँ आपस में घुलमिल रही हैं। अब घराना कुनबे की जगह शैली का ही अधिक बोध कराता है। लेकिन उनका यह निष्कर्ष पूरी तरह सही नहीं लगता कि घरानों में जो क्लोनिंग यानि नकल होती थी, घराना प्रणाली के कमजोर पड़ने के कारण अब वह समाप्त हो गई है। वास्तविकता यह है कि अब रिकार्डिंग्स उपलब्ध होने के कारण कोई भी किसी की भी नकल करने के लिए स्वतंत्र है, बिना उससे सीखे। नाम लिए बगैर कहा जा सकता है कि इस समय एकाध कुमार गंधर्व और कई भीमसेन जोशी, निखिल बैनर्जी और विलायत खां संगीत समारोहों में गा-बजा रहे हैं।
पुस्तक में खयाल, ध्रुपद, ठुमरी और टप्पा पर स्वतंत्र अध्याय हैं जो अत्यंत उपयोगी जानकारी और सूक्ष्म विश्लेषण के कारण बार-बार पढ़े जाने की मांग करते हैं। लेकिन टप्पे पर अध्याय में ग्वालियर घराने में टप्पे की स्वीकार्यता की चर्चा के दौरान अपने टप्पे और टप्प-खयाल के लिए विख्यात दिग्गज खयाल गायक कृष्णराव शंकर पंडित का उल्लेख न होना कुछ अजीब लगा। लेखक की यह टिप्पणी बिलकुल सटीक है कि किराना और जयपुर-अतरौली घरानों ने टप्पे पर ध्यान नहीं दिया (हालांकि मल्लिकार्जुन मंसूर कभी-कभी टप्पा भी गाया करते थे, शायद ग्वालियर गायकी में हुई शुरुआती तालीम के असर में)।  लेकिन यह समझ में नहीं आया कि लेखक ने यह निष्कर्ष किस आधार पर निकाला है कि ग्वालियर घराने के कई कलाकारों के आगरा घराने की ओर उन्मुख होने के कारण उसमें टप्पगायन की परंपरा क्षीण होती गई। आगरे के असर में ओतप्रोत बालासाहब पूछवाले अच्छा-खासा टप्पा गाते थे, और अक्सर गाते थे। इसी तरह यह निष्कर्ष भी गले से नहीं उतरता कि अपनी चंचल प्रकृति के कारण टप्पे का भविष्य ठुमरी की तुलना में अधिक उज्ज्वल है जबकि वास्तविकता यह है, और लेखक ने उसे स्वयं स्वीकार किया है, कि इस समय टप्पा गाने वालों की संख्या बेहद कम है। लक्ष्मण कृष्णराव पंडित और मालिनी राजुरकर इस समय टप्पे के सर्वाधिक प्रामाणिक गायक हैं और लेखक ने इस संदर्भ में उनका नामोल्लेख भी किया है। अकेली मंजरी आसनारे-केलकर के टप्पागायन को अपनाने से टप्पे के भविष्य का अंदाज़ नहीं लगाया जा सकता क्योंकि वह भी अपनी सार्वजनिक प्रस्तुतियों में अक्सर टप्पा नहीं गातीं।
क्योंकि लेखक स्वयं सितार और सुरबहार के सिद्धहस्त वादक हैं, इसलिए इस पुस्तक में आजकल प्रचलित सभी वाद्य-यंत्रों पर अलग-अलग अध्यायों में बहुत संक्षेप में लेकिन विषय के भीतर गहरी पैठ के साथ जानकारी दी गई है जो पुस्तक में चार-चाँद लगा देती है। तानपूरे को अक्सर श्रोता फालतू का तामझाम समझते हैं लेकिन तानपूरे और स्वरमण्डल पर एक पृथक अध्याय लिखकर दीपक राजा ने हमारे कला-संगीत में आधार-स्वर के महत्व और उसकी उत्पत्ति में तानपूरे की भूमिका पर बहुत खूबसूरती के साथ प्रकाश डाला है। अन्य वाद्ययंत्रों के बारे में जानकारी तो अन्यत्र भी मिल सकती है, पर तानपूरे और स्वरमण्डल का जैसा विवरण और विश्लेषण दीपक राजा ने किया है, वह अन्यत्र दुर्लभ है। इस अध्याय को पढ़ना एक सांगीतिक अनुभव से गुजरने जैसा ही है।

इस प्रकार की पुस्तकें जहां सामान्य श्रोता की जानकारी और समझ में इजाफा करती हैं, वहीं विशेषज्ञों के लिए भी अनेक बिन्दुओं पर विचार करने के लिए सामग्री उपलब्ध कराती हैं। इस पुस्तक की विशेषता है कि यह संगीत की भारीभरकम तकनीकी शब्दावली से पाठक को आतंकित करने के बजाय उसकी जिज्ञासावृत्ति को उत्तेजित करती हुई चलती है और इस क्रम में उसे सिखाती है कि वह हिन्दुस्तानी कला-संगीत को किस तरह सुने और समझे। दीपक राजा इस प्रयत्न के लिए साधुवाद के पात्र हैं।